A Dry land fruit Crop: PomegranateDate: 24-2-2021
Pomegranate (PunicagranatumL.)is an economically important commercial fruit plant species belonging to family Punicaceae. It is originated in Iran and extensively Pomegranate farming in done in the countries like Spain, Morocco, Egypt, Iran, Afghanistan, and Baluchistan, Myanmar, China, USA, and India.
Pomegranate is a rich source of carbohydrates, proteins, calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamins . Pomegranate eaten as fresh fruit also its juice is cool and refreshing. Each and every part of pomegranate has some medicinal value. Its petals are used for preparing dyes. Pomegranate is in great demand for fresh fruit consumption and export in the national and international markets. India occupies pomegranate area(1.25lakhha) and production(8.21lakhtonnes). Maharashtra is the leading state in India with 0.99 lakh ha area and 5.56 lakh tonnes production followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Its productivity is very low(6.57t/ha) in the country compared to countries like Spain(18.5t/ha) and the USA(18.3 t/ha).Compared with climatic conditions of Spain and USA, Indian climate is most favorable for Pomegranate. (National Horticulture Board-2011).
Climate: The plant grows in dry climate zones. Pomegranate plants flourish under bright sun light and dry climate. The optimum temperature for the fruit development stage is 38˚C.
Soil: Deep loamy or alluvial, well drain soil is highly recommended for pomegranate cultivation. The soil pH 6.0-8.0, reach in organic carbon ideal for pomegranate cultivation.Ill drain soil having water logging properties are not at all recommended for pomegranate cultivation.
Propagation: Vegetativemethodsofpropagation, especiallyair-layering, stemcutting and tissue culture.
Commercial Pomegranate varieties: Bhagwa, Mridula, Ganesh, Kandhari, PhuleArakta, Phule Bhagwa Super, Bhagwa Sindoor, Jalore Seedless, Jyothi,
Plantation method: Fruit orchards planted at wider distance. In recent years, a concept of dense plantation has been evolved in pomegranate. The idea is reduce fruit load per tree, which will enhance productivity, and ease plant treatment and harvesting.Fertilizer Management:
Organic fertilizers: cow dung half compost (must be 3 to 4 months), half compost FYM
Quantity : for one year plant - 80 to 100 kg/plant. For 5 year & above plant - 150 to 200 kg/plant. Use Biofertilizers like Azotobactor, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria, Potash Mobilizing Bacteria, Mycorrhiza (VAM), Tricodermaviride, T. harzianum
Chemical fertilizers : Nitrogen fertilizers - Urea, ammonium sulphate
Phosphate fertilizers : Phosphoric acide, 12:61:00, 00:52:34, 17:44:00
Potash fertilizers : Murate of Potash (water soluble), 00:00:50
Secondary Nutrients : Water soluble Sulfur, Magnesium sulphate
Micronutrients : Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4), Zinc Sulphate (Zn SO4), Manganese sulphate (Mn SO4), Copper sulphate (Cu SO4), Boron (B), Ammonium Molybdate (Ammo. Mo) Chemical fertilizers must use through drip irrigation only. Fertigation scheduled accordingly season.Water Management
Water management play a very important role in Pomegranate fruit production. At present Bacterial blight is a major disease causing fruit crack, thus reducing the market value and exportability. To over come this problem water management is the best remedy.
Irrigation must be timely intervals, required quantity and at appropriate place. For most accuracy, Indian farmers must install drip irrigation with Automation System for accurate water and precise fertigation. Proper drainage system helps during rainy season.
For Precise Irrigation
Lateral diameter: 16mm/20 mm
Discharge: 2 Liters/hr
No. of lateral: Double lateral (both side of the tree)
Distance between Dripper: 40 cm/50 cm/60 cm (according to water holding capatity of soil) With Automation Controlled system.
Kothari Group is one of the leading Drip Irrigation manufacturers in India and have a wide varity of drip solution for all types of crops.Training and pruning in Pomegranate:
This is the best promising technique for proper shape and vegetative growth. It helps proper light penetration in the tree center, proper pesticides sprayings, ease cultural operations and harvesting fruits.
In pomegranate there is two method of training system
Single stemmed method - Only one main shoot is kept.
Multi-stemmed method - Pomegranate plant bush shape is maintained by keeping 3 - 4 shoots at the base. Maximum three shoots method having best results.Weed Management:
Plot must be weed free. Not only between the trees also bandsmust weed free.Diseases of Pomegranate:
- Bacterial Leaf spot or Oily spot (Xanthomonasaxonopodispv. punicae)
- Fruit cracking or Fruit splitting ( Cercosporapunicae )
- Hart rot or Back hart ( Alterneriaspp. )
- Anthracnose ( Colletotrichumgloeosporioides )
- Cercospora leaf spot ( Cercosporapunicae )
- Wilt of pomegranate ( Ceratocystisfimbriata, Fusariumoxysporium)
- Fruit borers, Anar butterfly ( Deudorix (Virachola) isocates)
- Fruit borer, Conogethespunctiferalis
- Tailed mealy bug ( Ferrisia virgate )
- White fly ( Siphoninusphillyreae )
- Aphid ( Aphis punicae )
M.Sc. Agro-chemical & Pest Management