Importance of the Relationship of Soil & Water with the Plant.

Soil Plant Water Relationship

Date: 30-8-2021

The Need for Study

Soil acts as a medium for plant roots, a plant receives its food, water and air, all from the soil. Water is required by plants to carry out metabolic activities like photosynthesis, respiration, and the synthesis and degradation of organic compounds. Water is an important constituent of the plant cells; it is absorbed by the roots and travels through the stems to the chloroplast in the leaves. Water also carries large amount of nutrients from the soil to the plant.

The rate of entry of water into the soil, water retention, movement and availability in the roots are all physical phenomena. Hence, the study of the Soil- Plant- Water Relationship becomes important. At Kothari Group, we keep in mind the importance of this relationship when we design and produce our Irrigation Systems and Equipments, which makes Kothari Group Irrigation System Manufacturers and Suppliers in India, one of the best.

Soil forming Elements

Soil is a four phase system based on the elements it is comprised of, the phases of soil are:

  • Solid Elements (made of minerals, organic matter & various chemical compounds)
  • Liquid Elements (Soil moisture)
  • Gaseous Elements (Soil Air)
  • Biological Elements (Living organisms)

    Physical Particles forming the Soil are:

  • Sand (0.02 – 2.00 mm)
  • Silt (0.002 – 0.02 mm)
  • Clay (< 0.002 mm )

Types of Soil

On the basis of the composition of physical particles mentioned above, soil is divided into the following types:

Soil Type Sand (%) Silt (%) Clay (%)
Sandy 95 1 4
Sandy Loam 80 5 15
Silt Loam 27 58 15
Clay 17 17 66

Soil Structure

  • The volume that is not occupied by solid particles forms the soil pore space.
  • The total pore space comprises of micro (Capillary pores) and macro pores.
  • The ratio between them depends on the soil structure and texture.
  • Fine textured soils (Heavy) contain high percentage of micro pores (Capillary Pores).
  • Coarse textured soils (Light) contain high percentage of macro pores.
  • The micro pores (Capillary Pores) make a soil -water reservoir.
  • It is in these pores that water is retained under surface tension to later be used by the plants.
  • From the macro pores, water drains downwards, under gravity, leaving behind air that is essential for proper plant growth.
  • The Density of Heavy soil is less (approx. 1.2 gm/cm3), compared to the Medium Soil (1.4 gm/cm3) & Light Soil (1.55 gm/cm3)

Soil conditions based on the Moisture content are:

  • Saturated Condition- All soil pores are full of water, soil air is absent.
  • Field Capacity- There is water only in Micro or Capillary Pores & the air is in Macro Pores after the water is drained.
  • Wilting Point- Water is stuck in the soil particles forming micro (capillary) Pores, not useful for plants.

- Sandeep Deshpande
AGM- Sales & Marketing