Drip Irrigation is the most advance method used in Irrigation in
present days. It has history of below 75 years of development & hence the
latest method compared to the large history of Irrigation since the ancient
The important points in getting a good crop yield includes crop
spacing, soil type, available weather, Irrigation practices & other
practices. Here the Irrigation practices constitute the major factor in
deciding the crop yield.
The concept of drip Irrigation is based on the fact that the plants
has life unlike human being. It also grows from a seed. It also breathe &
eat like human being. So it also needs water like human being on daily basis.
If someone require 4 liters of water per day asked to have his weekly water
requirement of 28 liters in single go, is it possible? Not at all. Likewise
plants also have their fixed daily water requirement depending upon their
growth stage, spacing, canopy, ETc (Evapotranspiration)& crop factor. &
we have to apply the same quantity of water to them on daily basis. All the
above factors are mapped in a formula to calculate the daily water requirement
of that crop by drip system. Kothari Group, manufacturer of Drip Irrigation
system in India, has systems manufactured to precision with the best quality
The fix medium for most of the plants is soil, you can say plant is
the most ground to earth living
thing on the earth. Now we will study the soil conditions around root zone
& will discuss the most suitable conditions.
The soil strata composed of Solid elements (organic &
inorganic), Liquid elements (Soil Moisture), Gaseous elements (Soil Air) &
Biological elements (Living organisms). Physically the soil is composed of
different organic & inorganic matters.
The soil particles are divided broadly in 3 types
Clay particles (<0.002mm)
Silt Particles (0.002 to 0.02mm)
Sand Particles (0.02 to 2mm)
The soil types on the basis of composition of above particles are
Clay Soil, Silt Loam Soil, Sandy loam Soil & Sandy Soil.
Now we will study the conditions formed in the soil on the basis of
application of water.
Three stages formed in soil on the basis of quantity of water are
condition having 100% of water & no air around root zone of soil
Capacity condition having proportionate amount of water & soil around root
zone in soil as per the soil type
point condition having 100% air & no water available for the plant roots in
Condition for Plant Growth
Here now we will study in depth which condition is
ideal for the plant growth. The most ideal conditions for plant growth is field
capacity conditions. If we can maintain the field capacity conditions around
plant root zone for 24 hours, it is the best condition formed in soil around
root zone & hence the best for plant growth.
by Flood Irrigation
Now if we opted for flood Irrigation, more precise
Furrow Irrigation there will be 100% water in the soil around root zone
immediately after application & there will be no air-It is the most extreme
condition for the plant to breathe. This condition will remain for 4 to 5 days
after which the water starts depleting & air % start increasing replacing
the water. After next 6 to 7 days there will be 100% air & no water will be
present in the soil which can be available for the plant.
Now you can see, within the span of 10 to 12 days,
plant is suffering two extreme condition of no air (at start) & no water
(at the end). This hampers the overall yield of the plant & hence of the
happens with Drip Irrigation?
The drip Irrigation is aiming at calculating the daily
water requirement of the plant to keep the field capacity conditions (Wapsa
condition) around plant root zone for 24 hours. Here we must know for which
reasons plants needs water. It needs major portion of water in the morning
during photosynthesis. In morning ample Co2 is available, sunlight is there;
with the help of water & air from soil, it starts metabolic activates.
Plant do it on daily basis without any holiday & hence needs proportionate
water & air on daily basis from soil.
In afternoon, evapotranspiration rate increases
leading to water losses from soil & plant leaves, then again plant utilises
water. Plant has minimal requirement during night hour, still some water &
air requirement is there.
All above points suggest that plant requires daily
water & air in appropriate quantity which can be available for soil around
the root zone. Here drip irrigation is aiming at providing the exact daily
water required for the plant growth by keeping the field capacity conditions in
soil around root zone.
Hence drip Irrigation is the only method at present
which fulfils the plant water requirement as per their need on daily basis
leading to the highest crop yield.