During summer, the traditional method of sun drying the agricultural land by deep plowing the open field with a tractor is prevalent all over India. The main purpose is to destroy pests, cocoons, harmful micro-organisms, germs, viruses, weeds, seeds and to give rest to the soil. In summer, the temperature rises upto 42 degrees Celsius and sometimes to 45 degrees Celsius, this causes water to evaporate from the soil and the soil heats up and dries us. Excessive exposure to sunlight destroys soil microorganisms, germs, viruses, insect cells, grass seeds to some extent. This type of soil heating lasts from March to the end of May. The farmer assumes that this method makes the soil fertile. Hence one should not practice deep plowing. Harmful organisms thrive in soil where crops are constantly grown on flood irrigation, crop after crop and constant water retention in the soil. The effect is visible on the crop. Harmful bacteria such as root rot, nematodes and salts accumulate in the upper layers. In order to disinfect such soil, it is necessary to plow in intense sunlight and heat it for two to three months. This method should not be followed on good quality fertile soil and water managed by drip irrigation.
Why not to plough deep in summer
Soil fertility depends not only on chemical content but also on soil biodiversity. The higher the number of bacteria in the soil, the higher the availability of nutrients, the higher the fertility. Soils with high organic carbon content and high number of bacteria have the best soil fertility. When such soils are heated by intense sunlight in summer, the organic carbon in the soil is released into the air in the form of carbon dioxide and the amount of organic carbon in the soil decreases and it also affects the biodiversity.
Advantages of uncultivated land in summer
Leave the land uncultivated in summer, do not deep plow. These uncultivated land forms cracks. This is a natural process. In summer, these cracks become longer and deeper.Due to the intensity of the sunlight atwo-three inch layer of soil heats up. The temperature in the soil below that remains under control so the bacteria keep working. In this deep cracks the air goes deep into the soil. This is beneficial for the growth of bacteria in the lower layers of the soil. Also, a hard pan is formed at 2.5 to 3 feet in the soil due to flood irrigation, when air passes into the soil which helps to break the hard pan., Bacteria and soil ants, small and large insects, earthworms in such soils their movement five feet to more than that. These living things activity make soil porous and loosen the particles, naturally soil movement takes place. Even if it rains heavily in the rainy season, all the water seeps deep into the ground through the cracks, so the wells and bores recharge. This prevents soil from being washed away by rain and soil erosion stops. Excess salts in the upper layer are washed away to maintain the salinity in the upper layer of the soil ultimately, these natural activity increases the fertility of the soil.
Keep the soil without disturb natural sources 24x7 will take care the soil fertility improvement.